Our team of geothermal experts provide support in different stages of the exploration program, from early stages to production monitoring.
A well planned exploration program is fundamental for the resource identification.
Terra Energy offers new approaches for a successful resource assessment to reduce risks prior to significant capital investment.
Resource assessment involves many different disciplines:
Three-dimensional geological modeling has become a standard in geothermal exploration. Three-dimensional modeling software help visualize, integrate, understand and improve the conceptual model elaborated for the geothermal system. All data coming from the exploration program are integrated in highly specified three-dimensional platform software. Visualization of data in three dimension help understand and better define the geometries of geological bodies, to identify fractures and zones of permeability, to visualize the distribution of physical properties (e. g. temperature, porosity, permeability, density), to constrain reservoir extension and its properties, to lead the advancement of well planning, drill-site selection, to plan future numerical simulations, reservoir potential assessment with volumetric methods.
Terra Energy geothermal experts have several years of experience in three-dimensional geological modeling. The team realizes complete three-dimensional geological models from different kind of data like geological maps, wells, seismic data etc.. Integration of all data gathered in the geothermal program is done directly in the three-dimensional geological software, to minimize errors.
The integration of all data is the strongest point of exploration coming from the blend of different disciplines.
All data gathered during the geothermal exploration program, from literature data to new geophysical data, should be integrated in a spatial database. GIS-software represent a powerful system for the storage of spatial data. Geo-spatial data can be overlaid and relationships between different dataset can be easily visualized. GIS-software are also indispensable for mapping services. Geo-spatial data facilitate the integration of all exploration data in a unique conceptual model of the geothermal system.
Terra Energy provides a wide range of GIS-services for geothermal exploration and can produce:
- Spatial databases
- Spatial analysis
- Thematic map
- Integration of geological, hydrogeological, geophysical and geothermal data
- Set-up of spatial data for specialized geological and geophysical software
An early step in the exploration program is represented by geological surveys. This phase leads to determine the presence of a geothermal resource in the project area and its potential. Terra Energy geologists dedicate themselves to produce detailed thematic cartography of potential geothermal areas. Geological data need to be collected to understand regional and local tectonic settings and to assess preliminary geologic structures. It is very important to identify, since early stages of the exploration program, the reservoir and cap rocks, possible fluid paths and recharge areas, in order to focus later efforts on the most promising areas.
Hydrogeological and Geothermal Survey
Hydrogeological and geothermal survey represent an interdisciplinary activity that we execute to determine the presence of thermal anomalies in the investigated area and to evaluate possible environmental impacts. Steaming grounds, fumaroles and thermal springs, representing evidences of a possible geothermal resource, are investigated. Terra Energy hydrogeological services include all aspects of characterization, assessment, and management of the delicate aspects related to the theme of water.
Geochemistry data are very useful to assess reservoir information, like temperature, chemistry of fluids, nature of fluids (steam, gas, liquid), fluid flow paths, recharge areas, mixing between different aquifers. A preliminary geothermal potential of the area can be estimated knowing the heat in place, analyzing geochemical data.
Chemical data regarding reservoir fluid can also give important information about possible issues during production, as scaling, corrosion and the presence of non-condensable gases (e. g. CO2, H2S) and/or environment contaminants.
These information can be gathered through the analysis of fluids and gases discharging from the geothermal reservoir (e. g. thermal springs and fumaroles).
Our team offers high quality services for geochemical surveys, like:
- Water sampling
- Analysis of major, minor and trace elements
- Physical properties of fluids (e.g. pH,temperature)
- Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen
- Chemical geothermometry
- Measure of soil temperature
- CO2 soil flux
- Geochemical data interpretation
Geophysical surveys are an important tools in the exploration program. They consist in indirect methodologies that measure different physical properties of the subsurface (e. g. density, electrical resistivity, elastic waves velocity, magnetic susceptibility). Inhomogeneities in the measured physical properties are used to constrain geological bodies in the subsurface. Geophysical surveys are indispensable in the definition of the geothermal reservoir, its depth, lateral extent, thickness, presence of fractured zones.
Terra Energy geothermal experts can help in understanding and identifying the most appropriate geophysical surveys and tools for your geothermal exploration program, in order to maximize investments and reduce costs. Our team has a strong experience in integrating in a unique conceptual model all data coming from different geophysical surveys and with geological, hydrogeological, geochemical and geothermal data. Terra Energy team offers also an internal service of 2D gravity interpretation.
Temperature data play a very important role in geothermal exploration. In case geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data collection from surface manifestation, wells and from existing surveys do not provide satisfying temperature results, it is necessary to realize new thermal gradient wells. Terra Energy offer services for the realization of wells, logging operations and interpretation of physical properties.
Numerical simulations of the reservoir have become a standard in geothermal exploration and are performed using highly specialized software and high-performance personal computer. Three dimensional geological models of the geothermal reservoir are used as the basis of the numerical model. Numerical models are used to simulate heat and mass transport in the geothermal reservoir. Their aim is to validate the conceptual model of the reservoir, to locate the most suitable zones for production and reinjection wells and to simulate the behaviour of the reservoir under exploitation. They can therefore minimize risks due to over-production, interference between reinjection and production wells. Thermofluidodinamic simulation is a necessary tool for managerial choices. Terra Energy team have a solid experience in numerical simulation of the geothermal reservoir, both for high and low enthalpy resources for reservoir management.
Numerical simulation experience: Terra Energy has modelled many medium enthalpy geothermal fields for geothermal companies.
Available measuring instruments
- Measuring instruments for geothermal temperature profile
Instruments for water analysis
Terra Energy use Earth Science Department of Pisa laboratories, with the following equipment:
- Fluid analysis
The laboratory is equipped with a Dionex DX 120 ion cromatography apparatus for major and minor cation (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Rb, Cs, Sr e NH4) and anion analysis (F, Br, PO4, Cl, SO4, NO3 e NO2) and two spectrophotometers HACH DR/2000 and DR2800 for the determination of SiO2, B and I.
The laboratory provides all necessary equipment for in situ determination of chemical and physical parameters of fluids.
- Soil gas flux analysis
The laboratory is equipped for soil CO2 flux analysis with the LI-COR 8100 instrument.